Tech Glossary

Ad Exchange
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An ad exchange is a digital marketplace that enables advertisers and publishers to buy and sell advertising space, often through real-time auctions. They’re most often used to sell display, video and mobile ad inventory.

Ad Mediation
Source | Glispa
A platform for publishers that allows for the automatic or manual allocation of inventory across multiple ad networks and DSPs in order to maximize fill rates and effective revenue.

Ad Network
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An ad network is a company which aggregates advertising inventories from a large number of publishers’ websites. The advertising network is a commercial and technical intermediary between advertisers and publishers.

Ad Server
Source | Wikipedia
An ad server is a web based tool used by publishers, networks and advertisers to help with ad management, campaign management and ad trafficking. An ad server also provides reporting on ads served on the website. Finally, an ad server serves the creative side: this means that the ad server or ad serving company also delivers the ad to each user's browser.

Ad Tag
An ad tag is a piece of HTML or JavaScript code that your webmaster or developer inserts into the source code of a web page. You need to create a separate ad tag for each ad that you want to display on your website. An ad tag tells DoubleClick for Publishers, 'I belong to this ad unit.

API (Application Programming Interface)
Source | Wikipedia
A language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a database management system (DBMS) or communications protocol. APIs are implemented by writing function calls in the program, which provide the linkage to the required subroutine for execution.

App is an abbreviated form of the word "application." An application is a software program that is designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another application program.

App Ranking
Source | Glispa
App ranking refers to how a mobile application ranks in an app store - mainly Apple’s App Store and Android Apps on Google Play. Ranks are obtain on home pages, search pages and category pages.

ARPU
Source | Wikipedia
Average revenue per user or average revenue per unit (ARPU) is an expression of the income generated by a typical subscriber or device per unit time in a telecommunications network.

Attributes
In relational database management, a field within a record. In object technology, a single element of data.

Attribution
Wikipedia
Attribution is the process of identifying a set of user actions (“events” or "touchpoints") that contribute in some manner to a desired outcome, and then assigning a value to each of these events. This provides a level of understanding of what combination of events in what particular order influence individuals to engage in a desired behavior, typically referred to as a conversion.

Audience Based Targeting
Wikipedia | Glispa
Audience targeting is sometimes used to refer to the practice of targeting users according to first or third party data related to these users. Audience targeting data is often opposed to contextual or brand targeting where it is globally the advertising vehicle or website which is chosen.

Banner ads
Source | Source II
Also known as “display ads”, banner advertisements are a form of graphical ads embedded into a webpage, typically including a combination of static/animated images, text and/or video designed to convey a marketing message and/or cause the user to take an action. Banner ads are now standardized, so they look the same on every single site. It makes it easy to ignore ads even if they are relevant and well-targeted. For this reason, the market has shifted its focus on native ads.

Behavioural Context
Source | Wikipedia
In this type of targeting advertisers target specific users based on their previous online behaviour, such as browsing history or search history. This data is usually 1st party data - where advertisers collect data about users on online properties that they control (such as their own site or microsite), or 3rd party data - where the user data is aggregated by data companies and data exchanges and sold to advertisers.

Burst Campaign
Source | Glispa
Burst campaigns are a key mobile advertising tool. They help drive app discovery by catapulting apps into the top charts, and this momentum can spark a surge in organic growth that’s more valuable than a campaign executed over a longer period of time.

Campaign Management
Source | Wikipedia
Campaign management applications help organizations segment, target and manage multichannel marketing messages. Elements of functionality include data mining, customer segmentation, customer-event triggering, next-best-action recommendation engines and campaign optimization.

Cost per click. A pricing model in which advertisers pay per actual clicks.

CPE (Cost per Engagement)
Source | Wikipedia
CPE is usually not related to an action taken on the ad itself - it is about engagement beyond the actual view of an ad, clicking it or even installing the app afterward. CPE is usually an event which happens after the ad was viewed, clicked, and installed. It can be a registration event, subscription, product tour, survey/poll or anything else that the advertiser wishes to achieve beyond the immediate metrics of impression (CPM), click (CPC) or install (CPI).

CPI (Cost Per Install)
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In a cost per install payment structure, clients pay only when the app is installed (at times even extending to regular post-install use).

Cost per thousand impressions (CPM) refers to the rate that an advertiser has agreed to pay per 1,000 views of a particular advertisement. A website that serves ads based on CPI doesn’t need the user to click on the ad – each appearance of the ad in front of a user counts as one impression. The advertiser agrees to pay the website a certain price for every 1,000 impressions the ad receives.

Cross Device Targetting
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It’s a catch-all for the multiple methods for tracking and identifying Web users across devices. Figuring out that a smartphone user and desktop user are the same person makes it easier to not only target them with ads but also to track whether a given ad seen on the desktop resulted in a purchase on a mobile device — or vice versa.

Cross Promotion
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Cross-promotion allows app developers and companies to advertise in each other's apps via advertising placements within those apps. It's also a perfect model for content owners with a family of apps, because it allows them to cross-pollinate audiences and promote all their titles in the process.

CTR (Click Through Rate)
Source | Wikipedia
The number of clicks divided by total impressions served, measured in percentage points. CTR = (Clicks / Impressions) * 100. For example, a CTR of 1% indicates that 1000 impressions will produce 10 clicks.

Data
Source | Wikipedia
Technically, raw facts and figures, such as orders and payments, which are processed into information, such as balance due and quantity on hand. Data may refer to any electronic file no matter what the format: database data, text, images, audio and video. Everything read and written by the computer can be considered data except for instructions in a program that are executed (software). May refer only to data stored in a database in contrast with text in a word processing document.

Data Sets
Source | Wikipedia
A collection of interrelated data. Originating in the mainframe community, the term is used today as a generic description of a database, which may include multiple tables. It may also refer to some other data structure and sometimes to a single file or collection of files.

Demand Side Platform
Source | Wikipedia
A demand-side platform is a piece of software used to purchase advertising in an automated fashion. DSPs are most often used by advertisers and agencies to help them buy display, video, mobile and search ads.

Device graph
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A device graph, also known as “identity management,” is a map that links an individual to all the devices they use, which could be a person’s computer at work, laptop at home, tablet and smartphone. Instead of counting each device as the behavior of a different person, a device graph counts them as one person, so there’s no duplication. Advertisers can then see things like what time of day a person was exposed to an ad and on which device, which helps show what role a mobile ad had in a purchase.

Direct Deals
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Direct campaigns, or direct deals, are predetermined ad deals. A direct deal is a fixed transaction between one brand and one website with defined orders: a set time frame, a fixed campaign budget/spend and a guaranteed impression amount. The main characteristic is that direct deals are one-time, guaranteed deals from the brand to the publisher. The brand pays the publisher to serve ads on its website.

Dicrepancy
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The difference between numbers reported by a publisher and a third party ad server, There will always be some degree of discrepancy between the publisher and the 3rd party ad server because of the differences in technology and the different points at which they count.

Display Ads
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Online display advertising represents a range of adverts that sit on the pages of websites. Brands use online display for three main purposes: to deliver brand messages; to immerse consumers with interactive experiences; and to generate a direct response from consumers. All of this can uniquely be achieved within the same online advert.

DMP (Data Management Platform)
Source | Wikipedia
In simple terms, a data management platform is a data warehouse. It is a piece of software that sucks up, sorts and houses information, and spits it out in a way that’s useful for marketers, publishers and other businesses.

eCPM
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The actual cost per thousand impressions, calculated after advertisers run a campaign. eCPM = (Cost / Impressions) * 1000. eCPM is different from CPM bid because when advertisers bid for inventory, very often they pay below their bid price

Finger Printing
Source | Source II
Used as a means of measuring attribution, Fingerprinting uses basic information from a device to redirect a user from an ad click to an app install. Fingerprinting works by using a measurement URL that gathers data from the device to create the fingerprint. Fingerprint matching is particularly useful for installs via a mobile web browser because these browsers are unable to collect unique device identifiers (so other attribution methods are not possible) and therefore, we rely on device fingerprint matching to attribute app installs to user clicks.

Frequency capping
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A frequency cap (also known as an impression cap) allows an advertiser to limit the max amount of times that your ad will be shown to a user over a period of time. Google allows you to specify this on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.

Geo Trageting
Source | Wikipedia
A method of detecting a website visitor’s location to serve location-based content or advertisements. Every visitor’s computer (mobile device) is tied up with an IP address that indicates its specific location. The first three digits of an IP address corresponds to a country code, while the succeeding digits often refer to specific areas within that domain. This geographical information, when used for marketing purposes, is called geo-targeting

HTML5 Banners
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HTML5 is a significant force in online advertising, and it will get you the flexibility to run your banner ads on any device, wherever your audiences are. It will help you as publishers or advertisers to create cross-device ad campaigns, for instance, a campaign with animated banner ads that fits laptops, smartphones and tablets. That means you don’t have to create hundreds of versions of the same ad.

IDFA
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Identifier for Advertisers (IFA or IDFA) is a temporary device identifier used by the Apple set of handheld devices. It provides device identification while giving end users the ability to limit the device/consumer information accessed by advertisers or apps.

Impression
The act of displaying an ad placement (or simply an ad) in an app. Every page load = impression for one ad placement.

Impression Fraud
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"Impression fraud is the fraudulent practice by which ads are delivered and counted as served without having any chance to be seen by humans. Impression fraud is theoritically distinct from classic ad viewability issues. The most common types of impression fraud are: invisible ads displayed in hidden IFrames, impressions generated by botnet traffic, and bots hosted by the fraudsters and mimicking human visits"

Incentivized ad
Incentivized ads reward a user in exchange for completing an action – whether the action is an app download, a full video view, or referring a friend to register for a car service and take their first ride. In the case of mobile app advertisements, the reward is typically virtual currency, an upgrade within a game, or a discount on a product or service.

Latency
Source | Source II
Page latency refers to the amount of time it takes for the host server to receive and process a request for a page object. The amount of latency depends largely on how far away the user is from the server. Any new code to a site naturally risks increasing page latency, something publishers have struggled with.

Look alike
A lookalike audience is an algorithmically-assembled group of social network members who resemble, in some way, another group of members.

LTV (Customer Lifetime Value)
CLV (Customer Lifetime Value) is a prediction of all the value a business will derive from their entire relationship with a customer.

M-Commerce
The use of wireless handheld devices such as cellular phones and laptops to conduct commercial transactions online. Mobile commerce transactions continue to grow in number, and the term includes the purchase and sale of a wide range of goods and services, online banking, bill payment, information delivery and so on.

MAU
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MAU is monthly active users. It represents the number of unique returning visitors in a time span of one month.

MMP (Tracking Provider)
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Mobile Measurement Partner or MMP is a member of the Facebook Mobile Measurement Program. Mobile Measurement Partners provide performance metrics including attribution, lifetime value, downstream conversions, ROI, analysis across acquisition channels.

Mobile Device ID
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A mobile device ID is a distinctive number associated with a smartphone or similar handheld device. Device IDs are separate from hardware serial numbers.

Monetization
To monetize is to convert an asset into or establish something as money or legal tender. When used in relating to a website or app, monetization simply refers to the act of making money from your website or other property.

MRAID
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MRAID, or “Mobile Rich Media Ad Interface Definitions” is the IAB Mobile Marketing Center of Excellence’s project to define a common API (Application Programming Interface) for mobile rich media ads that will run in mobile apps. This is a standardized set of commands, designed to work with HTML5 and JavaScript, that developers creating rich media ads use to communicate what those ads do (expand, resize, get access to device functionalities such as the accelerometer, etc) with the apps into which they are being served.

Multichannel Marketing
Multichannel marketing refers to the practice of interacting with customers using a combination of indirect and direct communication channels – websites, retail stores, mail order catalogs, direct mail, email, mobile, etc. – and enabling customers to take action in response – preferably to buy your product or service – using the channel of their choice. In the most simplistic terms, multichannel marketing is all about choice.

Native Ads
A form of media that’s built into the actual visual design and where the ads are part of the content. It’s a method of advertising which seeks to provide content in the context of the user’s experience.

Native Carousel
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The Native Carousel offers advertisers the ability to tell a visual story by grouping up to five cards (images and captions) in a single execution.

Native In-feed
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In-feed native advertising (often referred to as 'In-stream native advertising') is one of the forms of native advertising which delivers a preview of branded content amongst other stories on publisher's property. The premise is to deliver native advertising as part of the user experience, match the format (look and feel) of the ad unit to the publishers' content, and prominently disclose native ads as Sponsored or Promoted content.

Post click Attribution
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A post click conversion is a conversion that occurs after a user has clicked on an ad.

Post view attribution
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A post view conversion (or view through conversion, if you are used to AdWords terminology) refers to a conversion where the user has previously viewed a served ad but did not interact with the ad by clicking on it.

Pre-loading
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Preload (spec) is a new web standard aimed at improving performance and providing more granular loading control to web developers. It gives developers the ability to define custom loading logic without suffering the performance penalty that script-based resource loaders incur.

Preroll Video
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A pre-roll ad is a promotional video message that plays before the content the user has selected. The video advertisements are often repurposed television ads, sometimes shortened to 10 or 15 seconds because the 30-second standard for ads on television is not suitable for videos, which are themselves frequently only a few minutes long. Pre-roll ads are the most common form of video advertisement. There are also mid-roll and post-roll ads.

Private marketplace
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Private marketplaces arose in response to the concerns publishers have had about offering their inventory on open exchanges. Instead of getting squeezed on CPMs in the open market, publishers like Hearst, Tribune Publishing and Future Publishing have turned to their own private marketplaces, which they use to offer their inventory to a select group of buyers in a more transparent, controlled environment.

Profile
A description of a customer or set of customers that includes demographic, geographic, and psychographic characteristics, as well as buying patterns, creditworthiness, and purchase history.

Profiling
Customer profiling is a way to create a portrait of your customers to help you make design decisions concerning your service. Your customers are broken down into groups of customers sharing similar goals and characteristics and each group is given a representative with a photo, a name, and a description. A small group of customer profiles or ‘personas’ are then used to make key design decisions with, e.g. “which of these features will help Mary achieve her goals most easily?”

Programmatic
Programmatic is the buying and selling of digital advertising using data collected by user behaviour and using that to be able to hit your target through smart learning of technology.

Retargeting
A sub-set of Behavioural Targeting. Re-targeting is the type of targeting when users are shown ads if they completed a certain action in the past (visited the advertiser’s site, clicked on the ad, etc.). Re-targeting is achieved by placing a simple text file (called a “cookie”) on the user’s browser after a special code fires (called a “pixel”), indicating a specific action. For example, the user visits the page, where the re-targeting pixel is pre-installed. This pixel then fires and places a cookie in the user’s browser. This user is added to the “cookie pool” of users. Advertisers then are able to target this “cookie pool”.

Retention
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Retention is the percentage of consumers who recall a specific advertisement or brand even after exposure to the advertising has ceased. For example, you would consider whether users have reopened the app during a tracked period. The users that did reopen / re-engage with it would be 'retained' users.

Rewarded video
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Rewarded videos are modified video ads designed around an in-app economy, granting users premium content such as coins or credits in return for viewing a short video clip.

RTB (Real-Time Bidding)
The process of bidding for an ad placement in real time by multiple advertisers. The winner serves the ad. During the Real Time Bidding process, the page loads with no ad on it, and only with the “opportunity for an ad”. The page passes valuable information (known as the “bid request”) to multiple advertisers, and based on this information, advertisers decide whether or not they want to bid for this placement. The price is determined in accordance with the “Second Price Auction” principle.

SDK
Short for software development kit, a programming package that enables a programmer to develop applications for a specific platform. Typically an SDK includes one or more APIs, programming tools, and documentation.

SSP Supply-Side Platform
A supply-side platform is a piece of software used to sell advertising in an automated fashion. SSPs are most often used by online publishers to help them sell display, video and mobile ads.

UA Fraud
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User Acquisition Fraud is a huge and growing problem for a lot of app developers who are fighting for those top spots in the app store. The old ad models, based on impressions or clicks, are no longer reliable as criminals learned to spoof traffic. Now, by paying only when the app is installed for the first time or when a newly registered user launches the app multiple times, it becomes much more difficult to spoof app installs or simulate active users.

Vast
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VAST, or “Video Ad Serving Template,” is a script that gives video players information about which ad to play, how the ad should show up, how long it should last, and whether users are able to skip it.

Viewability
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Viewability is an online advertising metric that aims to track only impressions that can actually be seen by users. For example, if an ad is loaded at the bottom of a webpage but a user doesn’t scroll down far enough to see it, that impression would not be deemed viewable. Viewability is designed to let advertisers pay only for the ads that users could possibly see.

Waterfalling
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Waterfalling is a technique publishers use to maximize both the pricing and fill rate of their inventory there by increasing their over all revenue . It’s also often called “daisy chaining.”

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